(France) Appellation d’Origine Controllée is the top rung in the French wine-quality system. 



Essential for the life and vitality of all wines because it can preserve the wine's freshness and keep the wine lively. Too much will make wine too sharp (not sour—that’s a fault), but not enough will make it taste flat and dull, and the flavor will not last in the mouth.The natural acids that appear in wine are citric, tartaric, malic, and lactic. 



As one of the most desired traits in a wine, the balance is the harmonious relationship between acids, alcohol, fruit, tannin, and other natural elements.Balanced wines are symmetrical and tend to age gracefully. 


Biodynamic :

A biodynamic wine is produced under a vineyard's natural resources without any pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, synthetic fertilizers, growth stimulants or GMOs.

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Any of various pinkish table wines. 



The weight and fullness of a wine that can be sensed as it crosses the palate. It is brought about by a combination of the fruit extract and alcoholic strength. 


Botrytis cinerea:

 The scientific name for noble rot, this fungus attacks the grape skins, and brought on the grape to become superconcentrated because it causes a natural dehydration.

This rot is welcomed by the winemakers, mainly for the sweet wines area from Sauternes and Barsac. 



 This term is applied to the combination of smells related with the wine’s maturity in bottle: the aroma, just the smell of the grape, becomes more developed from bottle aging called bouquet. 



(Fr.)“castle” or “mansion,” where many wines do actually come from. 


Cooked wine:

Applies to wines of high alcoholic content that give a sensory perception of grapes harvested in great heat and imply the addition of grape concentrate to the wine during fermentation. 


Corked wine:

Is the wine that has taken on the smell of cork as a result of an unclean or faulty cork. It is perceptible in a bouquet that shows no fruit, only the smell of musty cork. 



 It is a term used to describe mostly the white wines with a light to medium body. The crispy wines are clean wines, with good acidity showing on the finish, yielding a refreshing, clean taste. 



(Fr.) Refers to a specific blend or product which, in current commercial terms, will be from several vats. 



(Italy) Denominazione Di Origine Controllata, third level of the Italian wine Classification, similar to the French AOC. 



(Italy) Denominazione Di Origine Controllata, the highest-quality official denomination for Italian wine. 


En Primeur:

 (Fr.) Classic wines such as Bordeaux are offered for sale en primeur, which is a method of purchasing wines within a year of the harvest, offering the customer the opportunity to invest in a particular wine before the final blending and bottling has taken place. 



Are the yeast the responsible of the biochemical process that transforms fresh grape juice into wine, converting natural fruit sugars into almost equal quantities of alcohol and carbonic gas. 



Referring to a wine lacking in acidity and consequently dull, weak, and short. Flabby wines lack structure and are heavy to taste. 


Grand Cru:

(Fr.) Means great growth, it signifies that the wine has come from a truly great vineyard in regions such as Burgundy and Alsace. In Champagne, grand cru applies to entire villages. 



(Italy) Indicazione Geografica Tipica, second level of Italian wine classification, equivalent to the French Vin de Pays. 


Late Harvest:

It refers to the process when the grapes have been harvested late in the growing season, allowing them time to ripen fully and produce a considerable amount of sugar. The later the grapes are harvested, the more sugar and typically the sweeter the resulting wine. 



It is used with wines that display an absence of fruit, and these wines are often on the acidic side. The term is similar but less severe than the descriptor austere. 



The tracks of liquid that cling to a wine glass after the contents have been swirled. 



Refers to the wine whose flavor lingers in the mouth a long time after swallowing. 



A term that is usually applied to the period during the vinification process when the fermenting juice is in contact with its skins. This process is traditionally used in red-winemaking. 



Bottle format which contain 1,5 liters (2 regular bottles). 


Malolactic fermentation:

The malic acid is the compound that gives the tartness and extra acidity to the wines. Therefore, the malolactic fermentation is the chemical process in which lactic acid bacteria consume malic acid and produce lactic acid. This process is used in winemaking to reduce the overall acidity of the wine. Malolactic fermentation is also referred to as secondary fermentation. 



Describes a wine that is round and nearing its peak of maturity. 


Méthode Champenoise:

(Fr.) The process in which an effervescence is produced through a secondary fermentation in the same bottle in which the wine is sold (in other words, not transvasage). It is used for Champagne and other good-quality sparkling wines. 


New World :

Wine producing countries out of Europe.


Old World :

European wine producing countries.



A vine louse that spread from America to virtually every viticultural region in the world during the late 19th century, destroying many vines. 


Premier Cru:

(Fr.) Means first growth, the status of a premier cru is beneath that of grand cru. 



 Is the process of draining the clean wine of its less (also known as sediments) into different vat because of the different levels, or racks, on which wine runs from one container to another. 


Reserve Wine:

(Reserva in Spanish) It is a term given to a wine to imply that it is of a higher quality than usual and/or that it has been aged before being sold. 



(Fr.) Pink wines. 



Tannins are various phenolic substances found naturally in wine that come from the skin, seeds, and stalks of grapes. They are essential to the structure of red wines, in order to knit the many flavors together. 



In a viticultural sense, terroir refers to a vineyard’s whole growing environment: altitude, aspect, climate, and any other significant factors that may affect the life of a vine, and thereby the quality of the grapes it produces. 



 Synonymous with harvest: a vintage wine is the wine of one year’s harvest only.  


Vitis Vinifera:

Scientific name given to all grape varietals used in the winemaking process. 



 A kind of fungus that is absolutely vital in all winemaking. This fungus excretes a number of yeast enzymes which are necessary to complete the chain reaction that is known as fermentation.